IP addresses can be configured statically or dynamically. Normally we configure static IP addresses on network devices like routers, switches, firewalls and servers while we dynamically assign IP addresses to computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones etc. The dynamic method uses DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol).

DHCP is a network management protocol that assigns IP addresses and other communication parameters to devices connected to the network using a client-server scheme. Some of the parameters that DHCP can set include:

The first four parameters are typical for most network hosts, however DHCP has dozens of other parameters, called options, that can be defined for a DHCP server.

DHCPv6 is an extension of the DHCP protocol that supports IPv6 addresses and their related parameters.